**Literature Review: Goals as key to Focus on Learning**

On 1996, Hiebert , J., Carpenter, T.P., Feremma, E., Fuson, K., Human , P., Murray, H., Olivier, A., & Wearne D. has published a book entitled “Problem Solving as a Basis for Reform in Curriculum and Instruction: The Case of Mathematics.” As cited in this book – “effective teaching of mathematics establishes clear goals for the mathematics that students are learning, situates goals within learning progressions , and uses the goals to guide instructional decisions (NCTM, 2014 p. 12) —– thus goes the basis of the review.

The purpose of this literature is to cite to the readers – especially math teachers – to establish learning goals for students in order for them to focus more on learning. This part of the study is beneficial and important because this can be used by math teachers all over the country – the world, even. According to the authors, without learning goals, there is almost no way of monitoring a student’s mathematical learning. Also, setting goals simply “sets the stage for everything else” (p.51). Hiebert et al. (2007) described that the teaching process should be 1) setting goals for students precisely and explicitly; 2) implementing a teaching episode; 3) assessing whether or not the instruction facilitated students in achieving the goals; and 4) revising instruction in a way that does facilitate the desired student achievement. This study only has one viewpoint. Other relevant theories also were not presented. However, the study seems organized because of the process given. Not only that but the point is also clearly understood.

On a study that requires strategies in teaching math as a topic , then this is just the right literary piece. Overall I like the idea of the authors to establish goals before learning – although I am also quite sure that is not the first time this statement has been presented.

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